As a gatekeeper, taste buds forage chemical to identify both nutrition and toxins. This can be the decisive difference between initiating the swallow reflex or spitting out the oral contents. In addition to this simple function the sense of taste takes part in more complex relations such as reflexes vs learning, perception vs expectation, and pleasure vs disgust. All relations, which can be perturbed into unbalance, create great discomfort in patients suffering from a dysfunctional sense of taste. This review discusses the most important mechanisms of taste function and dysfunction as well as the possible avenues for treatment of the disorders.