This review summarises the current knowledge of risk factors, diagnostic work-up, and treatment of superficial vein thrombosis (SVT). SVT most often affects varicose superficial veins of the lower extremity. The diagnosis is based on clinical signs and may be supplemented by duplex ultrasound. The treatment of SVT aims at relieving symptoms and preventing progression into the deep vein system. Recent studies indicate benefit of anticoagulant therapy in selected cases of SVT.