This review presents the consequences of gallstones lost during laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) and left in the peritoneal cavity. The incidence of intraoperative loss of gallstones during LC is estimated to be 1-40%. 1-12% of patients with unretrieved gallstones may develop complications, with intra-abdominal abscesses being the most frequent. The presence of pigment stones is correlated to development of complications. Studies show, that 80-83% of surgeons may underestimate the number of potential complications, which indicates, that this subject requires increased clinical attention.